Leopard Creek Country Club is located on the southern border of Kruger National Park in South Africa. The Course was designed by Gary Player and opened in 1996. The clubhouse is shown here with the 18th green in the front and behind is a view of the Kruger national Park. With Kruger National Park as a back drop the nature and beauty of both the park and the golf course come into focus.
Written by Domonic Petrella, David Gardner, and Karl Danneberger
Anthocyanin production, or tissue purpling, in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) is caused by a number of factors. However, what drives the production of these pigments is generally associated with early spring weather. These conditions typically include cool day and night temperatures, and are always associated with increasing day length and increasing light intensities. Essentially anthocyanins are being produced to help protect newer leaf tissue from the these changing environmental conditions. Still, the change in color can be off putting and worrisome for superintendents. To complicate the issue further preliminary greenhouse research has shown that some varieties of creeping bentgrass will begin producing anthocyanins faster when initially exposed to the environmental stress.
Freeze tolerance of plants is not constitutive but induced in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures (< 50 F (10C). This process is known as cold acclimation, which occurs during the fall or early winter, and explains why a plant species growing at a warm temperature then exposed to freezing is killed, while that same plant exposed to a cold acclimation period prior to sub-freezing temperatures survives.